FAQ's
   DISPUTED DOCUMENTS :
 
  Q.HOW IS THE IDENTIFICATIONS OF HANDWRITING?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE HANDWRITING CHARACTERISTICS?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT POINTS/PRINCIPLES OF HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF EXAMINATION OF DISPUTED DOCUMENTS ?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE KINDS OF FORGERY?
  Q.WHAT IS THE IDENTIFICATION OF TYPEWRITING?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE IDENTIFICATIONS OF INKS, PAPER PENCIL?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE IDENTIFICATIONS OF FINGER PRINTS?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE MAIN PATTERNS OF FINGER PRINTS?
  Q. WHAT ARE THE MAIN POINTS CONSIDERED IN IDENTIFICATION OF FINGER PRINTS?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE FORENSIC BALLISTICS?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF FIRE ARMS?
  Q.WHAT ARE CARTRIDGES?
  Q.WHAT ARE THE INVESTIGATIONS IN FIRE ARM CASES?

 

 
Q.HOW IS THE IDENTIFICATIONS OF HANDWRITING?
Ans:-A document could be disputed on more than one count and it is not possible to lay down exactly any general rule regarding them.A genuineness of the signature or body writing of the document is one of the most common problems involving identification in a disputed document. To add to this sequence of writing and signature, identification of ink, age of document, erasures etc. are also various factors, which are involved either in combination or singly.
Whenever a document is disputed particularly in respect of handwriting there arises the necessity of known writing called the "STANDARDS"
For comparison the 'Standards' could be :- (1) writing or signatures made in usual course of business and
(2) Writing or signatures made of the request or dictation etc.
The correctness of the opinion would much depend on the proper standards made available for comparison. The "Best standards’ could be those which are (1) made in usual course of business (2) extended over length of period (3) as far as possible adverbatium of the disputed (4) of the same class i.e. English for English, Devnagari for Devnagari etc,if however, the above kind of writing or signatures are not available then request writings or writings made to dictation could also serve the purpose.
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Q.WHAT ARE THE HANDWRITING CHARACTERISTICS?
Ans:-There are various characteristics, which describe a particular handwriting, and each individual normally has his own handwriting characteristics, which persist in normal circumstances throughout his writing, of course within the range of ‘normal variation’.
Some of the main handwriting characteristics could be mentioned as the ‘S' qualities being (1) Speed, (2) Slant, (3) Spacing, (4) Shading,(5) Size, (6) Style and ‘P' qualities as (I) Pen position, (2) Pen lifts, (3) Pen pressure, (4) Pictorial effect, (5) Proportion of letters, (6) Paragraph formation along with characteristics like [1] Movement, [2] Alignment, [3] Line quality [4] Formation of letters etc, which are looked in identification of handwriting.
Of course all these characteristics may not be relevant in each and every case of handwriting identification. The value of these characteristics depends on each and every case independently.
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Q.WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT POINTS/PRINCIPLES OF HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION?
Ans:-
1. A person can not make two signatures mathematically identical/ exactly alike. If the two signatures are found to be super imposing over each other then one of them or both of them could be traced forgeries,
2. Similarly a person cannot write better than his normal skill.
3. The disputed and the comparatives should always be in same script.
If the disputed signatures/writing is in English then the comparatives must also be in English.
Normally signatures should be compared with signatures and the writings should be compared with writings.
However, if signature is in writing style then in such cases the signatures can be compared with the writings.
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Q.WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF EXAMINATION OF DISPUTED DOCUMENTS ?
Ans:-
There are various scientific ways of examining the documents depending on the problem involved in each case.

1. Reflected light examination:
This is the most formal type of examining the documents. In this case, the document is examined with the help of various types of magnifying lenses in normal light.

2. Transmitted light examination:
In this case the light is passed through the document. The document is held against the source of light, by which the light passes through the document This kind of examination of the document is done while examining the traced forgeries, erasures etc.

3.  Side light Examination :
In this type of examination the light is passed from one side, parallel to the surface of paper. If there is any erasure on the document disturbing the fibers of the surface of the paper, can be easily detected with the help of side light examination.

4. Ultra Violet Ravs Examination:
Whenever there is any alleged chemical erasure in any document, the Ultra Violet Rays examination is of immense help to determine whether there is any chemical erasure.
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Q.WHAT ARE THE KINDS OF FORGERY?
Ans:-
For convenience sake the forgeries could be classified as follows :-
1.Merely signing the name or putting the name of a person without making any attempt to show any similarity with the genuine signature of that person
2. Forging signature by copying or simulating the genuine signature either with the help of a studying the model or from memory.
3. Forging the signatures by tracing with the help pencil outline carbon outlines or indentation or directly tracing by putting over a genuine signature
4. Stamp lifting. Many times, the signatures appear either on one or two revenue stamps. In such cases, the stamps affixed on the original documents are lifted/removed from that document and are affixed to any other documents.
5. Using genuine signature on a blank paper : In such cases, the
signature of a person already appears on the blank paper and body writing or a text of the document is subsequently written.

The signature mentioned under item no.2 above are generally classified as "Simulated or Copied forgeries. The signatures mentioned under item no.3 are called "Traced forgeries".
Each kind of forgery has its own characteristics and therefore the disputed signatures first should be examined by themselves to see whether they show any inherent sign of forgery or genuineness and then can be compared them with the standard signatures to find out whether they agree in their handwriting characteristics pointing to the same writer or otherwise.
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Q.WHAT IS THE IDENTIFICATION OF TYPEWRITING?
Ans:-
The identification of typewritten matter also falls  within the purview of the expert, though it may be seen that typewriters particularly of the same make and model are likely to give the same impression, still in actual practice it has been proved that the individual typewriters have individual characteristics in their impressions either due to the defect in manufacturing process or due to wear and tear which develops peculiar defects individual to each typewriter.

As such, in anonymous letters where the typewriting is one of the common sources, the examination of the material is likely to lead to positive results. So also in cases of typewritten additions and interpolations, there have been various cases where the identification of typewritten matter has played great part in the Law Courts.
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Q.WHAT ARE THE IDENTIFICATIONS OF INKS, PAPER PENCIL?
Ans:-
Many a times the question of identification of ink on the written document or additions or alterations or erasures are likely to be involved in a disputed document. There are various methods by which the inks could be identified or distinguished. The Ultra Violet Rays also play an important part in the identification of ink, erasures etc.

Similarly papers could also be identified and distinguished by the chemical examination of fibers, sizing, thickness, colour etc.

The identification or inks and papers in a disputed document plays an important part in determining the genuineness or otherwise of a disputed document.

Similarly the lead of a pencil can be microscopically examined to ascertain about the similarity or dissimilarity of the pencil used in the two writings.

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Q.WHAT ARE THE IDENTIFICATIONS OF FINGER PRINTS?
Ans:-
In India, the percentage of literacy being very small, the most common problems of the execution of a document center round the thumb impression, which is put on it either as executant or as a witness.

The science of finger prints admittedly being perfect and very accurate, positive opinion could be expressed, about the identity or non identity of the finger impressions, no matter whether the impression is of a thumb, right or left or of any other finger.

The identifying characteristics of a finger print are nature made and once they develop, they are not liable to change or vary in their identifying value till the skin decomposes.
However, in spite of the Science of Finger Impressions being accurate each case may have its own limitation due to the impression being blurred or partly printed or due to any other reasons. The photos and micro photo enlargements have greatly helped in solving many complicated problems in the branch of Finger prints.
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Q.WHAT ARE THE MAIN PATTERNS OF FINGER PRINTS?
Ans:-
Broadly speaking patterns of finger prints are divided into four main types,(l) Arches (2) Loops (3) Whorls and (4) Composites. These are also further subdivided from the identification and classification poinl of view.
Q. WHAT ARE THE MAIN POINTS CONSIDERED IN IDENTIFICATION OF FINGER PRINTS?
Ans:-
(1) The type of pattern (2) Core (3) Delta (4) Ridge counting (5) Ridge tracing (6) Ridge characteristics (Ridge characteristics are the endings of ridges, fork or bifurcation, dot, island etc.)
Whenever specimen thumb impressions are required to be taken for purposes of comparison, it is advisable to take them as fully rolled impressions with printer's ink (as is used in Sub-Registrar's office) on plain white paper. At least three to four impressions be obtained. Along with the rolled impressions, plain impressions may also obtained to facilitate comparison.
Where it is not certain as to which finger or thumb the disputed impression belongs, it is advisable to take impression of all the ten fingers and then marked properly as of right or left hand.
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Q.WHAT ARE THE FORENSIC BALLISTICS?
Ans:-
Though the science of identification of Fire Arms from the ammunition fired therein is recently developed, still the accuracy which it has reached is remarkable- In fact, it is very much comparable to the Science of Fingerprints and the results achieved are equally high from its accuracy point of view.
Normally a shooting case may involve the following important points, for expert opinion and evidence.
6. Identification of fired cartridges and/or bullets inter-se.
7. To connect fired cartridges and/or bullets with the suspect weapon or the crime weapon.
8. To trace the Weapon from the ammunition fired.
9. To determine the range of fire from the nature of wounds, scorching, blackening, tattooing etc.
10.To ascertain the consistency or inconsistency of gun shot injury in relation to suspected weapons or ammunition or both taken together in reaction to the suspected range and weapon.

In ballistic cases practical tests and demonstrations could be carried on very satisfactorily with positive results and as such no room or approximation of ‘mere opinion’ is left.
The Ballistic Expert can produce before the court all the exhibits which he may have prepared during his study of the cases which guided him to come to the opinion which he expressed.
Lastly it should be borne in mind that in spite of the various progresses in the Forensic Science there may be questions in which mathematical accuracy may not be possible and for that reason neither the science nor the expert be blamed.

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Q.WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF FIRE ARMS?
Ans:-
In general all the fire arms can be divided into two main classes :- (1) Smooth Bores and (2) Rifled arms.
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Q.WHAT ARE CARTRIDGES?
Ans:-
The cartridge consists normally of five main parts
(1) Cartridge case (2) Cap (Percussion) (3) Powder or propellant (4)Projectile (5) Wads.
The cartridge may be of (1) Shot guns (2) Rifles and (3) Revolvers and Pistols,
Percussion Caps may be (1) Center fire (2) Rim fire and (3) Pin fire.
Projectiles can be broadly classified into two groups (I) Shots and pellets (2) Bullets.
Some of the factors helpful in determining the distance between the shooter and the shot are by tracing the presence of (1) Scorching
(4) Blackening (3) Unburnt  powder grains (4) Dispersal of pellets
(5) The dimension and the nature of wounds etc.
The identification problems can be divided into two parts (1) from the cartridge case (2) from the bullet or projectile.
In cartridge cases, generally there could be found (1) breach markings (2) Firing pin markings (3) The extractors or ejector markings and (4) any accidental markings which would go to connect the cartridge case with the crime weapon.
In cases of bullets there are only 'lands' and grooves’ markings from the barrel, which would connect them with the crime weapon.

Normally in smooth bore weapons the pellets do not receive any markings from the barrel which could connect them with the crime weapon which fired them. Sometimes a spherical ball when fired may receive some markings, which would help identification.

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Q.WHAT ARE THE INVESTIGATIONS IN FIRE ARM CASES?
Ans:-
Fire Ann investigation may come into play in three probable cases (1) Accident (2) Suicide and (3) Murder
The investigation in firearm cases could be divided broadly under the following heads (1) Weapons (2) Ammunition (3) Angle of fire (4) Wounds (5) Finger prints (6) Clothes (7) any other abnormal circumstances found at the scene of crime.
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FEW SUGGESTIONS REGARDING EXPERT OPINION
While obtaining the specimen signatures/writings kindly
(6) Obtain 3/4 Signatures on one sheet of paper.(7) Obtain specimens on at least 2/3 sheets without showing the previous sheet to the writer concerned. (8) Obtain the specimen signatures/writings hi the same script in which the disputed signatures/writings are appearing.
While obtaining the specimen thumb impressions kindly [1] Obtain the thumb impressions preferably with the black printer's ink as is used by the Police for taking the thumb impressions of convicts after their conviction.
[2] Obtain the specimens of both right and left thumbs irrespective of the endorsement below the disputed thumb impressions.
[3] Obtain  both rolled impressions as is taken before the Sub-Registrar and the plain impressions.
While sending the requisition for expert opinion kindly
[1] Mention the disputed documents and mark the disputed signatures and or thumb impressions required to be examined.
[2] Mention the comparative/admitted documents and mark the admitted signatures and or thumb impressions.
[3] Mention the amount, which may have been deposited towards expert opinion.

For further information if so required all the communications may kindly be addressed to
ULHAS S. ATHALE, Handwriting Fingerprint Expert, 7 East High Court Road, Ramdaspeth (Kactripura) NAGPUR-10.
Phone No. 0712 - 252 3113 & 254 8456

 

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